时间：2019年09月12日 Source: jajshop.com Time: September 12, 2019
Read 800 words in "Modern History of China":
The modern history of China since the Opium War is a history of humiliation, but also a history of saving lives and seeking for ups and downs. The History of Modern China by Mr. Jiang Tingyun reviews objectively and profoundly the history of major events and characters in modern history.
The book "The History of Modern China" was first published in 1938. The whole book is not very long, but its weight in the study of modern history is extremely heavy. It can be described as "a masterpiece in this field". The author Jiang Tingji is a historian of the study of modern Chinese history. He studied in the United States in 1911 and obtained a doctorate from Columbia University. He has successively served as the chairman of Nankai and Tsinghua History Departments. He is the successor to Liang Qichao's "new history". In 1935, he was invited by Chiang Kai-shek to be an official in the National Government, and held positions such as diplomat, chief of administrative affairs of the Executive Yuan and other positions. He went to Taiwan after 1949 and has been the representative of the Republic of China to the United Nations. Jiang Tingyi used his identity as a proficient foreign language and diplomat to compare the original archives of the Qing Dynasty with multinational diplomatic documents and put China in the tide of the world. Only then did he arrive at the view that "modernization can save the country".
In the overview of this book, the author says that the Chinese nation in the past century has only one problem, that is, can the Chinese be modernized? Independence, prosperity, and strength are the goals we want to achieve, and the only way we must go is modernization. The author further explained modernization: using scientific machinery to organize modern nation-states to catch up with Westerners. In the book, the author summarizes China's decline into three points: science, technology, and national ideas.
The core point of this book is that from the Opium War, the Westernization Movement, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the Boxer Regiment to the Revolution of 1911, this is a progressive process for the Chinese to learn about modern Western civilization and pursue prosperity. The essence of these events are all kinds of explorations carried out when China encountered a crisis of survival. The author summarizes various explorations into four schemes to save the country and the people in modern Chinese history: self-improvement movement, reform movement, boxer movement and modernization scheme. Note that there is no plan to save the country led by the Communist Party of China. Mr. Jiang Tingyi evaluated the success or failure of these four plans. The self-reliance movement was initiated by the Westernization School and advocated the mastering of foreign skills to control others. This is an incomplete plan because of its limited understanding of the influence of the political system and the spirit of the time.
The main purpose of the Reform Movement of 1898 was to change the political system and establish a constitutional monarchy. This plan was more modern than the self-improvement movement, but was aborted due to the opposition of strong and stubborn forces. The author believes that the failure of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom proves that China's old-fashioned folk movements cannot save the country and the nation, and the Boxer Movement is against Westernization and modernization. It is reversing history and is bound to fail. Regarding Sun Yat-sen's "modernization" revolution plan, as the highest-priority plan considered to help China out of the crisis, it is also the only correct plan.
Mr. Jiang Tingyun's evaluation of the four national salvation plans is similar to the mainstream evaluation of our textbooks, and there are two obvious differences. One is that the textbook mainstream characterizes the Boxer Movement as patriotic. It failed because it did not have a correct revolutionary program. The author in this book believes that the Boxer Movement resists foreigners who represent advanced culture and is therefore included in the reactionary list. Evaluation of the programme. The author believes that this is the only correct plan, but in fact, because Sun Yat-sen did not have a sound revolutionary party and revolutionary army to promote, because of the weakness and compromise of the bourgeoisie, this plan to save the country and the people also failed.
Reading this book today, we will find that since China's reform and opening up, China has centered on overall economic construction. Other tasks, such as diplomacy and obscurity, and active accession to the WTO, are all efforts around China's modernization and modernization Exploration is also a practical answer to the question of national rejuvenation raised by Jiang Tingyun.
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