时间：2016-07-12 Source: jajshop.com Time: 2016-07-12
"Wu He Zhi Zhong" 2000 words after reading
It took me 2 weeks to finish reading Gustav; Le Pen's "Wu He Zong", this book was read at a very slow speed, and after reading it, it was completely confused, but helpless I watched it again and again, different moods, different harvests.
This book was read on the recommendation of classmates. If you want to describe it in one sentence, it is still Freud said: Le Pen's "Wu He Zong Zhi" is a well-deserved masterpiece, and he described the collective mentality very wonderfully. . From beginning to end, I feel that there are a lot of prejudices in this book. It can be said that I should be a supporter of collectivist ideas, but Le Pen pointed out that once an individual enters a group, his personality is lost, and the group's ideas occupy Dominance, while the group's behavior is manifested by no objection, emotion and low IQ. This completely subverted my concept. The group (group) was far from what I knew and accepted. In many cases, the group's psychology, opinions and beliefs can make people so disappointed and scared.
In Robert Morton's The Gains and Losses of Le Pen's The Ugly Man, he pointed out that the book did have a huge impact on people's understanding of the role of collective behavior and thinking on social psychology. At a time when the masses were re-emerging, Le Pen was sensitively aware of the dangers contained in this phenomenon and spoke it frankly in the language of psychology he had mastered. Le Pen's thought is super ideological. Here or there in this book, he touched on some issues that people care about today, such as social obedience and excessive obedience, single interest, and masses. Rebellion, popular culture, self dominated by others, mass movements, human self-alienation, bureaucratic process, escape from the embrace of leaders to free, and the role of unconsciousness in social behavior, etc. That is, Le Pen inspected a large number of social problems and concepts faced by modern people, which made this "Wu He Zhong" a lasting significance.
The masses. Groups are relative to individuals, but not any number of people can form a group. A group is a group of two or more people who, in order to achieve a common goal, are connected in a certain way to carry out activities. It can be seen that groups have their own characteristics: members have common goals; members have a sense of identity and belonging to the group; there are structures within the group and common values. Groups have productive and maintenance functions. The value and strength of a group lies in the consistency of its members' thoughts and behaviors, and this consistency depends on the particularity and standardization of the group norms. The interaction of individuals in groups with others is itself a stimulus. Individuals must respond to this stimulus, and thus behave differently than when they are alone. In Le Pen's view, when people become a group, their feelings, thoughts, and behaviors become quite different from when they are alone, and the group is always lower in intelligence than the isolated individual. Groups do not have the ability to make any long-term plans or reflections, and isolated individuals have the ability to dominate their own reaction behavior (when people gather into a group, a mechanism to reduce their intelligence level will work, from when they become a group one From the day of the staff member, the learned man and the idiot lost their ability to observe).
The group is always dominated by unconscious factors. Its behavior is not mainly affected by the brain but by the spinal nerves. Therefore, the group is a slave to the stimulating factors. The group has impulsiveness, impatience, lack of rationality, lack of judgment and critical spirit, Susceptibility to cues and credibility. The book lists the famous massacres in French history in 1792. At the time, inspired by the spirit of the Revolution, thousands of citizens in Paris tortured and killed more than 1,500 monks and nobles in prisons within a few days, not even children aged 12 or 13. What's even more incredible is that at the scene of the capital punishment, women take pride in seeing the torture of the aristocracy. These usual shop assistants and housewives believe that their righteous acts are destroying the enemies of the Republic. Therefore, the isolated individual knows that he cannot burn the palace or ransack the shop when he is alone, and even if he is tempted to do so, he can easily resist this temptation. But when he became a member of the group, he realized that the number gave him power, which was enough to give him the idea of killing and plundering, and he would immediately succumb to this temptation. Unexpected obstacles would be destroyed violently. . In the same way, this can also explain the crazy behavior of the Red Guards during the Cultural Revolution. They lost their sense of being as individuals, only knew and accepted extreme feelings and ideas. They also obeyed those who made themselves lose their sense of personality. Encouraging, it formed an extremely crazy and terrible power, at which time reason was completely overwhelmed.
Most of the people in the middle and lower ranks in society have a low status and a narrow and fragile mind. They do not know much about general issues beyond their own life experience, do not distinguish between authenticity and falsehood. They hope to listen to the opinions of authority and prevail in the soul of the group. It is not a requirement for freedom, but a desire to be a minion, so the group is susceptible to hints and credulity. They advocate for power and superstitious authority figures, which also gives leaders the opportunity to take advantage. Le Pen explained in the book that the leader is more likely to be a doer than a thinker. They do not have the talent for sharp thinking and foresight, nor can they, because this quality makes people hesitant (I do n’t understand this) ?) (Every group of outstanding leaders, especially leaders in the revolutionary period, are mostly sparse, and they often have courage than intelligence. Too much intelligence can even cause obstacles for leaders, but it is these people with limited intelligence that bring the world The biggest impact.). However, leaders will use the methods of assertion, repetition and contagion to influence the group's mind with ideas and beliefs. These effects are somewhat slow, but once they take effect, they have lasting effects. An idea that will eventually take root at the top of society with its powerful power, no matter how obvious the absurdity of the winning opinion is. Looking back at history, it is not difficult to understand why Hitler's fascism was widely supported by the German people at that time. Hitler also wrote in "My Struggle": The group loves the ruler, not the supplicant. They are more likely to be persuaded by the doctrine of an intolerant opponent, and they are not easily satisfied with the generous and noble freedom. They Confused about what can be done with this freedom, it is even easy to feel abandoned. They will neither realize the rudeness of intimidating them, nor the physical deprivation of their personal freedom, because they will never understand the true meaning of this doctrine. (But I don't know how to explain Chairman Mao's status and the applicability of his ideas)
In Le Pen's view, regardless of the nature of the group's products, compared with isolated individual products, they are always of low quality. In a realistic sense, we should be alert to ourselves, know ourselves, maintain our personality, and be a sober free person, especially in groups.
"Wu He Zhi Zhong" 2000 words after reading
Wu He Zhi is a great work by French psychologist Gustave. Some time ago, I did n’t install the Internet at home, and I bought it when I had nothing to do. Because I have limited ability, I ca n’t tell the truth after reading. Today, after reading Brother Yang Tao's post-reading feelings, I really have a sense of intimacy (Article 6 is particularly important). Here I will take a record of myself and share it with friends who want to read this book.
1. What is a group? People who have a common consciousness activity form a group. The so-called group refers to a group of people who have the same conscious activity. When their conscious activities are different, they are no longer groups. There are two types of groups: active and passive. Active groups are groups that people actively and voluntarily join, such as political parties and groups. The passive group is that they may not realize that they have become a member of the group, such as a group of people watching movies in a movie theater. Once they encounter a theater fire, they have a common consciousness in a panic. Another example is the group holding stocks. When facing a sudden plunge in the stock market, they also have a common consciousness.
2. The origin and logic of group formation. Groups are formed because they share a common consciousness. So why do they have the same consciousness? Its root lies in the desire and instinct of human existence. Survival is the first instinct of man, and reproduction is the second instinct of man. All other behaviors and the consciousness generated by them are rooted in the instinct of survival and reproduction. In order to survive, a group of people who cannot live will become a group, which is why the insurgents and revolutionaries come together. In order to survive, people need to possess resources. In order to possess resources, various interest groups have been formed. In these groups, people's consciousness is the same or similar. There is a group that does not seem to exist, such as the body bomber group. They sacrificed their lives and used their flesh as a bomb. On the surface, they were anti-human and violated human instincts. This is related to innate instinct and acquired education. Human instinct is to maintain the survival and reproduction of the individual, but also has a subconsciousness to maintain the survival and reproduction of the race. Combining such subconsciousness with acquired education, people will form a self-approved consciousness, even if this consciousness is at the expense of their own lives.
3. The characteristics of the group. The reason why a group becomes a group is that the individual consciousness in the group is suppressed, so that the group consciousness replaces the individual consciousness. Therefore, in the group, consciousness becomes simple and simple, so the performance of the group sometimes seems ridiculous, but it has its origins. One of the group characteristics is the unity of action. Because the consciousness is simple, the group can be easily stimulated to act impulsively. For example, after the theater fire, some people shouted that there is an exit. At this time, no matter whether the exit leads to life or death, the group often swarms over, and even some people are trampled to death. The second characteristic of group is the low intelligence of thinking. Because group consciousness is the same, ideas and practices that deviate from group consciousness, whether active or passive, are excluded. Because of this, the thinking logic in groups is often simple, lacking divergence and openness, which predestined that their intelligence level is relatively low. Now we recall that the rebels in the Cultural Revolution, those young people, often did something that seems ridiculous today, such as torturing other people and destroying cultural relics. Even some parties themselves felt incredible afterwards. But everything was normal at the time. Otherwise, it was abnormal. This is just how they were in a group.
4. Leaders in the group. Leaders in the group are born with great chance. Because of the simplicity of group consciousness, in order to obtain group identity, it is necessary to have similar and different behaviors to the public. This is destined that those with high IQ and super level often do not become leaders of the group. In contrast, leaders in groups are more mediocre and similar to the general public. He looks different and is often deliberately packed after becoming a leader. For example, in a meeting, if Zhang San or Li Si is to be responsible for a task, the determining factor is often not the capabilities of Zhang San and Li Si, but who the first proposer chooses. If Zhang San is the first person to speak, other people often easily give up Li Si. For another example, when a theater fire broke out, people who shouted where they exited may not be conscious in advance, but it is an instinct to escape, but if the exit is really wrong, they are stuck in a dead end. Everyone has died there. No one is talking about it. But if the lucky exit really is the way to go, then the shouting person may become a hero and become a leader in the group. In groups, identifying leaders often does not require higher intelligence, but more chances. Therefore, the leaders of the group are not so great people, but more mediocre. Let ’s take a look at the presidents elected by the United States over 200 years ago. How many are truly outstanding and sung by future generations? In the same way, most elected presidents are mediocre. How can our hereditary emperor system choose the best What makes a good man an emperor? Leaders are ordinary people, and heroes are accidents. This is the basic characteristic of the group.
5. How to stimulate the action of the group. Since the group's conscious behavior is simple, then to stimulate the group's action, it is necessary to use simple language and repeat it in a simple and easy-to-understand manner. That is what Le Pen proposed: assertion, repetition. On this basis, groups will naturally infect each other. Assert that it won't give you a second way, only this way to go. Eliminating the diversity of thinking can easily stimulate the group's action. On the battlefield, the leader roared after me, more than a thousand words. Of course, other followers will not be patient and think carefully whether this sentence is right or not, they should not follow it, but will jump up. Repeating is to say something over and over again. The simplest and most effective way is to use posters and banners. For example, just having a good one is a good slogan. It ’s everywhere, and gradually, people do n’t think about why anymore, they just say that it ’s good to have a good one, and implement the policy into their own bones. . Lies repeated ten thousand times will also become the truth, human nature is lazy, thinking is more lazy, and you are unwilling to think more about why, so if a lie is repeated over and over again, everyone will take it as true, but the truth is not believed .
6. How do individuals in a group surpass the group's low intelligence. We study group theory in order to understand the characteristics of the group so as to grasp the movement of the group, and we can successfully surpass the group. However, it is difficult for individuals in a group to surpass the group. First, if an individual becomes a member of a group, it means that the individual has a common consciousness with the group. If he wants to surpass, he must first deny his original consciousness. The human nature is dominated by me, and it is doomed that people will not easily deny themselves. Therefore, it is almost impossible for individuals in a group to surpass the low intelligence of the group. Therefore, if individuals want to surpass the low intelligence of the group, they must first know themselves, then deny themselves and pull themselves out of the group circle. Then come to study the characteristics of the group, and then think about the method of transcendence. But this process is often painful because no one in the group will support it and you must pretend to be like them. In the face of repeated failure tests, people often give up their efforts to leave the group. For example, investors in the stock market have the same consciousness as everyone else who invests in the stock market in order to make money. Because of this, together with other shareholders, he is a person in a group and his intelligence level is low. If he wants to surpass everyone, he must often be inconsistent with the public, such as selling when the price is up, buying when it is down, and enduring it when it is sideways. He needs to have his own unique insights, but is often punished by the market so much that he has to doubt that he is wrong. It's really difficult, if not impossible, to get out of it.
"Wu He Zhi Zhong" 2000 words after reading
If we acknowledge that Marx's assertion that history was created by the masses is correct, we also acknowledge Gustav; Le Pen in the Uighurs that groups are psychologically naive, ignorant, irrational, and easily exploitable. Then we can easily understand why some people always emphasize that this is the choice of the people or that this is the choice of history.
In fact, before reading this book, I was more convinced by Marx's statement that history was created by the people. Perhaps my belief is exactly the kind of irrational abducted belief among the ignorant masses as described in the Uighurs. Because from the general trend of history, the social state and even the world are indeed developing in a direction that is beneficial to the people. Doesn't this just mean that history was created by the people?
But the fact is that we can hardly see in the history that the masses have any clear self-interest tendency towards the direction of history. Groups can support a government in their favor at a certain time, and may immediately kick the government out of the country because of rumors that are not at all certain. The key factor that plays a decisive role in grasping the historical direction in history is not the opinions of the masses, but the individuals or at least a small group of people who can guide the masses to keep their heads calm and sober.
Nor is it necessary to stay awake, and sometimes these leaders are not awake themselves, and they may be stuck in their beautiful political creed or religion. But the key is that it takes such a core hero to turn all these creeds, ideas, and beliefs into an unquantifiable emotion, so that it can finally be accepted by the group.
According to Panler's theory, when discussing the influence of various factors on the group, reason is the last. Few people can add personal wisdom to the wisdom of the entire group with individual wisdom. The group IQ must be and is always lower than the IQ of each individual in the group, and this gap will increase with the increase of the IQ of each individual in the group.
And this phenomenon has not only appeared in history, even in modern times, in the courts of a democratic country, in juries. This phenomenon is also very common. After hearing some cases, a single member of the jury said in an interview that he would not give such a result if he was re-selected.
Although Panler is not completely believable about the arrangement of various groups and images of the group, for example, he puts race first, and he is also a thorough racist. But I still think his argument is valid in some ways. For example, the influence of factors such as education and rationality on the group is very low. The group always makes a positive response to the simplest, most intuitive and most emotional slogan (whether it is support or opposition), but reports a long-form dissertation negatively. Attitude (too lazy to support or oppose).
Based on this point of view, Panler also put forward another point of view: The higher the popularity of higher education in a society, the worse it is for the development of society itself. It may even hinder social production. As a bourgeois psychologist, at this point Panler was largely looking for an evil theoretical backing for the communist movement that was emerging at the time. He believes that it is precisely because of the popularity of higher education that the emergence of nasty people like Marx, and finally a group of workers are incited to go on strike, and finally stagnation of social production.
Regardless of class, we can think that Ponce's point is correct. In history, there is no threshold for becoming a mass, but there are thresholds for becoming a hero or a negative anti-hero who guides the masses. The success of a hero or anti-hero is, to a large extent, crucially related to many personal qualities such as personal moral sentiment, education level, and family environment. The popularity of higher education makes more and more people have the ability to become heroes or anti-heroes. If it is okay in a turbulent war, if there is little chance of becoming a hero in a peaceful and steadily developing society, then there are many options for this kind of people to be an anti-hero. Become Marx.
In fact, in times of war and turbulence, universal higher education cannot be achieved for objective reasons. So the proposition of popularizing higher education is tantamount to creating anti-heroes.
In discussing this view, Panler also accurately predicted a social phenomenon we now have: academic discrimination.
We have a premise that there are always fewer senior positions in society than lower positions. And we can never think of a method that makes sweeping workers have to master calculus and probability statistics to sweep the floor.
Then if our higher education is only elite education, only a small number of people can get higher education. And the number of these highly educated people is exactly equal to the number of people in society who need them. Then all is well and the society is harmonious, and no one will have any contradiction.
But if our higher education becomes universal education, more and more people will get higher education. Only a few of these highly educated people have access to higher careers that are consistent with their knowledge structure. The vast majority of highly educated people must work with those who have no higher education in those positions that do not require a higher knowledge structure. They must be unwilling, and this unwillingness may eventually lead to some very serious consequences. At the same time, those with higher education who are engaged in higher occupations will artificially raise the entry barriers for those lower positions because of sympathy, which will eventually cause a lot of social waste and hinder the development of social production.
In addition, due to the relative popularity of higher education, higher educated people will discriminate against lower education. As the proportion of higher educated people in society increases, this discrimination will become more serious.
The result of the combination of these two aspects is that the higher the popularity of higher education, the greater the social contradictions (higher education and lower education), and the more unstable factors (the idle higher education combination) will appear, and the less (A lack of lower educators).
In the end, you will find that in fact, Panler's theoretical support to help capitalists deprive workers of their right to learn will eventually lead to a completely correct result. Moreover, our society is still moving forward under his prophecy
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