时间：2016-08-29 Source: jajshop.com Time: 2016-08-29
1000 words after reading Contradiction
"Practice" and "Contradiction" are the theoretical viewpoints of Comrade Mao Zedong's speech outline in the Yanan Anti-Japanese War Military Political University. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, "Practical Theory" and "Contradiction" were formally published. They summarized the history of China's revolution from the perspective of dialectics and cognition, and enriched and developed Marxism-Leninism to a certain extent. Its dialectics and epistemology, its innovative value and theoretical purpose have been hot topics researched by scholars at home and abroad. "Practice" explores Marxist view of truth and epistemology. The conclusion is to discover truth through practice, and to verify and develop truth through practice. "Practice, cognition, re-practice, and re-knowledge. This form goes back and forth to infinity, and the content of each cycle of practice and contradiction has reached a higher level." Contradiction emphasizes The law of the contradiction of things, the interaction of things in the contradiction from opposition to unity, and at the same time the specificity of contradiction is used to oppose dogmatism. Logically, the philosophical theoretical basis of Mao Zedong Thought on these two articles, the other writings are the successful use of this philosophy in various tasks. Mao Zedong's "Practice Theory" and "Contradiction Theory" are exemplary works of Marxism with Chinese characteristics, laying a philosophical foundation for the integration of Marxism with China's specific reality.
In practice, people get the various appearances, one-sidedness, and external connections of things through their senses, that is, the perception of things. Then, as social practice continued, people grasped the essence, the whole of things, and the internal connections of things, and the sensibility reached a leap and became a rational one. And the leap of knowledge must not leave practice. The continuous deepening of understanding is based on the foundation of practice. This is true of the proletarian understanding of capitalism, the Chinese people's understanding of imperialism, and the war leaders' understanding of war.
"Contradiction" is the practical experience of the Chinese Communist Party in leading the Chinese revolutionary struggle summarized by Comrade Mao Zedong's materialist dialectics. In terms of identity, struggle, and the position of confrontation in contradictions, it profoundly expounds the law of unity of opposition, and proposes that the law of unity of opposition is the essence and core idea of dialectics. This teaches us that when we look at things, we must learn to think from multiple angles and aspects, and constantly expand our thinking. Professional knowledge must be examined and proven in various aspects. The learning process is the same. Don't get horny on a problem. Knowing things and thinking about problems cannot be extreme. "Contradiction" also requires us not to think alone, but to learn to analyze the pros and cons and analyze the problem dialectically. In daily life, we can not only see the good side of things, but also analyze from different angles. The disadvantages in the discovery can avoid errors in future practice. Just like the power plant operating room that we visited during our internship, although the staff inside are boring and have few holidays, they have a regular life and relatively stable salary. Only by seeing the two sides of things can we discover more vitality.
In fact, my understanding of "On Practice" and "On Contradiction" is very shallow, and my thinking is also one-sided. If I have a chance in the future, I will try to figure it out again. After reading, I have further thoughts on my life planning and life, and also deeply understand the importance of practice and dialectical thinking. In the future, I will not only apply the theory to practice correctly, but also use dialectical methods to consider issues, and in accordance with my own situation, continue to increase my connotation, and strive to be a new socialist who can arm himself with advanced theoretical knowledge.
1000 words after reading Contradiction
Reading the article "On Contradiction" by Chairman Mao Zedong made me understand more that during the extremely difficult period of the Anti-Japanese War in Yan'an, Comrade Mao Zedong spent a lot of energy to overcome serious dogmatic ideological errors in the party. Many fruitful work finally unified the thinking of the whole party, so that the party's style of seeking truth from facts can be carried forward and magnified ...
"Contradiction" was completed in August of the same year by Mao Zedong after the completion of "On Practice" in July 1937, in order to overcome the serious dogmatism in the party. Mao Zedong's "Contradiction" elaborated the core issues of materialist dialectics-the problem of contradictions, the relationship between the complexity and particularity of contradictions, and specifically pointed out that the universality of contradictions is commonality and absoluteness, and the commonality and personality of contradictions The unity of opposites is the essence of contradiction of things, and failing to understand it is abandoning dialectics. (After reading jajshop.com)
No matter what things develop, there are contradictions. It can be said that without contradictions, there is no world. This is true in nature and in the development of the revolutionary cause. When the Communist Party of China was just set up, those Bolshevik intellectuals who had studied in the Soviet Union, lived in bungalows, drank foreign milk, and ate foreign bread did not proceed from China's national conditions, and blindly took orders from the Communist International. It was instructed to rigidly apply certain "experiences" of the October Revolution in the Soviet Union, and even hired Li De, a foreign consultant sent by the Communist International, to command the Red Army to fight. As a result, the fourth and fifth anti-encirclement and suppression of the Central Soviet Region failed. It brought huge losses to the Chinese revolution. All of this fully shows that no matter what work you do, you must proceed from reality, and you cannot engage in the metaphysical set, because it is an unrealistic idealist theory. This is as pointed out by Comrade Mao Zedong, "The so-called metaphysical or vulgar evolutionary universe view is to look at the world from an isolated, static and one-sided point of view. This universe view regards all things in the world, the form and kind of all things as They are always isolated from each other and never change. "From the words of Comrade Mao Zedong, it is not difficult for us to see that no matter what we look at, we must proceed from reality and look at the matter in a dialectical and dialectical manner. Only in this way can we adhere to the principle. To find a solution to the problem under the conditions of this, this is the theory of dialectical materialism.
Chairman Mao Zedong also emphasized in this article that "materialist dialectics considers external causes to be conditions of change, internal causes to be the basis of change, and external causes to function through internal causes." It can be said that this statement is really brilliant, take the Great Revolution of 1927 For the failure, Chiang Kai-shek betrayed Mr. Sun Yat-sen and betrayed the revolution. This was inseparable from the "right-leaning" opportunism represented by Chen Duxiu in the party at that time. If at that time we had our own revolutionary armed forces, hardened, and did not compromise with the Kuomintang, then we would not be defeated by the Great Revolution, and it would not be possible for the Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek to massacre Communists in the "April 12" counter-revolutionary coup. Similarly, in the Central Soviet Area of Jiangxi, if we are not superstitious about some "experiences" of the Soviet Union and those that obey the Communist International's "instructions" that are not in line with China's actual conditions, the fourth and fifth anti-encirclement and suppression will not be possible. Failure, even if the failure is not so miserable! It can be said that the Communist International "minds" living far away from Moscow, eating foreign bread, and drinking foreign milk did not investigate and publish unrealistic information about China without authorization. The "instructions" of the revolution are, of course, abominable. It would be impossible to lead to the failure of the fourth and fifth anti-encirclement campaigns if the dogmatic doctrines of the Central Authorities and the Communist International ’s instructions were stolen from the Central Authorities. It made the Central Red Army relocate like an unprecedentedly difficult 25,000 miles long march. Therefore, the phrase "external cause works through internal action" pointed out by Chairman Mao Zedong is quite correct. From this perspective, "a political party must lead the revolution to victory by relying on the correctness of its political line. Organizational consolidation of armed forces. "
At the end of the article, Mao Zedong summarized the main points of the full text in an incisive style. He emphasized that the law of contradictions is the law of unity of opposites. This is the fundamental law of nature and society, as well as the fundamental law of thinking. Contradictions exist in the process of all objective things and subjective thinking, and run through the whole process. This is the universality and absoluteness of contradictions. Contradictory things and each aspect have their own characteristics. This is the particularity and relativity of contradictions.
The "Contradiction" is full of the wisdom of materialist dialectics, always runs through the scientific spirit of seeking truth from facts, comprehensively and systematically discusses the philosophical significance of specific issues and specific analysis, and is a classic document of Mao Zedong's philosophical thought. From the perspective of dialectics, "Contradiction" has made a philosophical summary of the historical experience of the Chinese Revolution, enriched and developed Marxist dialectics, and is an important sign of the formation of Mao Zedong's theoretical system.
1000 words after reading Contradiction
"The law of contradiction of things, the law of unity of opposites, is the most fundamental law of materialist dialectics." Mao Zedong wrote at the beginning of his book "On Contradiction." So, how to understand the law of contradiction? Mao Zedong believes that we need to understand the following issues: the two universe views; the universality of contradictions; the particularity of contradictions; the main contradictions and the main aspects of contradictions; the identity of all aspects of contradictions And struggle; the position of confrontation in conflict.
One is metaphysics, which is an idealistic view of the universe, which is to look at the world from an isolated, stationary, and one-sided point of view. The world is static, and if there is a change, it is also an increase or decrease in quantity or a change in place. The reason for this change is mainly from external factors rather than internal factors. Therefore, this view cannot explain the qualitative diversity and the phenomenon of qualitative change (the dogmatists hold such a view).
The other is materialist dialectics, which advocates studying the development of things from the inside of things and from the relationship of one thing to other things. This view holds that the root cause of the development of things is not outside the things but inside the things, and the contradictions within things, and the connection and influence of one thing with other things is the secondary reason for the development of things. The simple external cause can only cause the mechanical movement of things, that is, the increase and decrease of the quantity, the size of the scope, and cannot explain how things are so different in nature and change each other.
Universality of contradiction
The universality of contradictions refers to the existence of contradictions and all things, and the existence of contradictions promotes the development of things. It has two meanings: one is that contradictions exist in the development of everything, and the other is that there is a contradictory movement from beginning to end in the development of everything.
Particularity of contradiction
The contradictions in different forms of material movement are different, and they are all special. The particularity of a contradiction is the basis on which a contradiction differs from other contradictions, and universality exists in the particularity. Heterogeneous contradictions must be resolved in different ways, as Lenin said in specific cases. There are two processes of cognition of things: from special to general (cognitive stage), and then from general to special (application stage). These two processes are the process of continuously expanding and improving the understanding of things.
When studying problems, avoid subjectivity, one-sidedness, and superficiality, and be objective, comprehensive (both parties to the contradiction must study) and deep. At different development stages of things, the particularity of their contradictions will change. We must study from all aspects of contradictions in each stage to come up with effective methods to resolve contradictions.
Main contradiction and main aspect of contradiction
In the development of complex things, there are many contradictions. Among them, there must be one and only one is the main contradiction, because its existence and development affect the existence and development of other contradictions. All we have to do is to grasp the main contradictions. And one of the two aspects of the contradiction must be the main aspect, which determines the development direction of the contradiction. The mutual transformation of the major and minor aspects of the contradiction promotes the change in the nature of things. Only by accurately finding the major and contradictory aspects of the contradiction can we have a good grasp of the law of development of things.
Identity and struggle in all aspects of contradiction
Identity has two meanings: one is that the two aspects of each contradiction in the development of things are based on the premise that they oppose each other, and the two sides coexist in a unified body; Certain conditions are transformed in opposite directions. Fighting means that the determinants of the two aspects of the contradiction are absolutely fighting each other and transforming each other. The combination of conditional relative unity and unconditional absolute struggle constitutes a contradictory movement of everything.
Confrontation in Contradiction
Confrontation is a form of conflict and not all forms. Some contradictions will only emerge when the contradictory struggle develops to a certain degree (such as construction disputes in Zhongmu County, Henan Province on March 29. The fatal accident is the result of the escalation of contradictions), and some contradictions are changed from antagonistic to Non-confrontational (eg, the two parties negotiated a settlement during a civil dispute).
1000 words after reading Contradiction
The philosophical thesis of "Contradiction" was written by Mao Zedong in order to overcome the serious dogmatism that exists in the Chinese Communist Party. As the ideological guide of that era, it not only helped China's proletarian revolution to victory, it is still a rare spiritual guide in today's society and has irreplaceable practical significance. Here, I focus on my personal life experience.
"The law of contradictions of things, the law of unity of opposites, is the most fundamental law of materialist dialectics. Lenin said, 'In the original sense, dialectics is the contradiction in the nature of the object of study.'" The opening sentence was to tell When we study this law, we will cover a wide range of aspects and many philosophical issues. This just illustrates Chairman Mao's rigor: Philosophy cannot be elaborated in just a few words. It must be comprehensively considered in all aspects of things. Later, Chairman Mao's discussions on the two universe views, the universality of contradictions, the particularity of contradictions, the main contradictions and the main contradictions, the identity and struggle of the contradictions, and the status of struggles in the contradictions were finally discussed. A good explanation of contradiction. Many of these words left a deep impression on me.
First of all, "when we study certain things, we should discover these two aspects and their interconnections, discover the particular and universal aspects of an object and their interconnections, and discover something and many things outside of it. "Understanding the universality of contradiction, there is no way to discover the general cause or basis of the development of the movement of things, but if you do not study the particularity of contradiction, you cannot determine the special nature of something different from other things. Therefore, it is impossible to distinguish things and distinguish the fields of scientific research. The contradictions in various forms of material movement are special, and they also contain their own special contradictions. This particular contradiction constitutes the special nature of a thing different from other things. And we always study things from knowing individual and special things, gradually expanding to knowing general things, and at the same time connected with each other, that is, a unified dialectical view of these contradictions, and then it is possible to carry out further generalization work and recognize the various The common nature of things. Contradictions promote the development of things, and at the same time, they provide directions for us to study things.
Second, understanding things requires research. It is necessary to study not only the special contradictions of the material movement forms of each large system and their prescribed essence, but also the special contradictions and essence of each material movement form during its long course of development. When researching problems, "do not take subjectivity, one-sidedness and superficiality", people need to reflect these situations truthfully, not just look at them one-sidedly or superficially, understand the interconnections of things, and study the various aspects of the development process of things The particularity of contradictions in the development stage must not only be viewed in terms of its liaison and overall, but also in all aspects of contradictions in each stage.
Again, contradictions are usually divided into primary and secondary, and the primary and secondary are not absolute. "In each stage of process development, there is only one major contradiction that plays the role of leadership. When studying any process, if there are two or more contradictory complex processes, we must use all our strengths to find its main contradiction" and " The main and non-major aspects of the contradiction are transformed into each other, and the nature of things changes with it. "Therefore, in studying any process, we must first catch its main contradiction, so that all problems can be solved. Thousands of people do not understand this method. As a result, they cannot find a way to resolve contradictions.
In general, the law of contradiction between things, the law of unity of opposites, is the fundamental law of nature and society, and therefore the fundamental law of thinking. Differences are contradictions and cannot be avoided. The original plan contradicted the unknown accident, the lofty ideal contradicted the ruthless reality, and the busy urban life rhythm contradicted the leisure time of Bixi fishing and quietly enjoying the evening light. The association caused by "Contradiction" knows that there are contradictions everywhere in life. Absolute peace and purity are only one-sided and deviations in understanding, which exist in the ideal country.
For example, before entering university, I was always lucky, thinking that after the college entrance examination, the world should be a sunny and worry-free future. However, this is still the case today, and it is still necessary to sort out and contradict in order to survive smoothly. . The heavier schooling is, the heavier the desire for a leisurely life is, the heavier it is, and the other side will disappear after the disappearance of one side. So when he entered university, he felt empty at times, but had to continue to spur himself and seek motivation under pressure.
The same is true of people. The good and evil in human nature are a pair of opposing unity that rotates hand in hand, attracting each other and repelling each other. The only difference is that during the growth of each person, some people turn the evil thoughts in their hearts into goodness, and are guided by their behaviors and thoughts to become good people. However, those who become good people will not be without evil in their hearts, they will suppress and claustrophobic somewhere in their hearts throughout their lives, shrink to infinitesimal size, but still exist. Others indulge the desires of the soul, go against morality and axioms, and become the dark side opposite to the good. Up and down, left and right, Qian Kun, Yin Yang, society and life are all composed of such polar opposites. People always learn from experience and lessons in the process of transforming contradictions, grow, and continue the contradictions for a long time, until death. Because of the longing and longing for life, there is the fear of death.
Spear and shield are inseparable. One side of the contradiction pushes the other side forward, one by one, the way of culture and warfare, and because of all kinds of thoughts, human nature has gradually become more complex and mature. In other words, understanding the universality and particularity of contradictions also helps to understand the world and life more clearly, make correct judgments on various contradictions, and adopt effective methods to minimize the level of differences in contradictions. Degree, resolve confrontation, and make life and thought spiral in contradiction.
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